Templating

Alpine offers a handful of useful directives for manipulating the DOM on a web page.

Let's cover a few of the basic templating directives here, but be sure to look through the available directives in the sidebar for an exhaustive list.

Text content

Alpine makes it easy to control the text content of an element with the x-text directive.

<div x-data="{ title: 'Start Here' }">
<h1 x-text="title"></h1>
</div>

Now, Alpine will set the text content of the <h1> with the value of title ("Start Here"). When title changes, so will the contents of <h1>.

Like all directives in Alpine, you can use any JavaScript expression you like. For example:

<span x-text="1 + 2"></span>

The <span> will now contain the sum of "1" and "2".

→ Read more about x-text

Toggling elements

Toggling elements is a common need in web pages and applications. Dropdowns, modals, dialogues, "show-more"s, etc... are all good examples.

Alpine offers the x-show and x-if directives for toggling elements on a page.

x-show

Here's a simple toggle component using x-show.

<div x-data="{ open: false }">
<button @click="open = ! open">Expand</button>
 
<div x-show="open">
Content...
</div>
</div>
Content...

Now the entire <div> containing the contents will be shown and hidden based on the value of open.

Under the hood, Alpine adds the CSS property display: none; to the element when it should be hidden.

→ Read more about x-show

This works well for most cases, but sometimes you may want to completely add and remove the element from the DOM entirely. This is what x-if is for.

x-if

Here is the same toggle from before, but this time using x-if instead of x-show.

<div x-data="{ open: false }">
<button @click="open = ! open">Expand</button>
 
<template x-if="open">
<div>
Content...
</div>
</template>
</div>

Notice that x-if must be declared on a <template> tag. This is so that Alpine can leverage the existing browser behavior of the <template> element and use it as the source of the target <div> to be added and removed from the page.

When open is true, Alpine will append the <div> to the <template> tag, and remove it when open is false.

→ Read more about x-if

Toggling with transitions

Alpine makes it simple to smoothly transition between "shown" and "hidden" states using the x-transition directive.

x-transition only works with x-show, not with x-if.

Here is, again, the simple toggle example, but this time with transitions applied:

<div x-data="{ open: false }">
<button @click="open = ! open">Expands</button>
 
<div x-show="open" x-transition>
Content...
</div>
</div>
Content...

Let's zoom in on the portion of the template dealing with transitions:

<div x-show="open" x-transition>

x-transition by itself will apply sensible default transitions (fade and scale) to the toggle.

There are two ways to customize these transitions:

Let's take a look at each of these approaches:

Transition helpers

Let's say you wanted to make the duration of the transition longer, you can manually specify that using the .duration modifier like so:

<div x-show="open" x-transition.duration.500ms>
Content...

Now the transition will last 500 milliseconds.

If you want to specify different values for in and out transitions, you can use x-transition:enter and x-transition:leave:

<div
x-show="open"
x-transition:enter.duration.500ms
x-transition:leave.duration.1000ms
>
Content...

Additionally, you can add either .opacity or .scale to only transition that property. For example:

<div x-show="open" x-transition.opacity>
Content...

→ Read more about transition helpers

Transition classes

If you need more fine-grained control over the transitions in your application, you can apply specific CSS classes at specific phases of the transition using the following syntax (this example uses Tailwind CSS):

<div
x-show="open"
x-transition:enter="transition ease-out duration-300"
x-transition:enter-start="opacity-0 transform scale-90"
x-transition:enter-end="opacity-100 transform scale-100"
x-transition:leave="transition ease-in duration-300"
x-transition:leave-start="opacity-100 transform scale-100"
x-transition:leave-end="opacity-0 transform scale-90"
>...</div>
Content...

→ Read more about transition classes

Binding attributes

You can add HTML attributes like class, style, disabled, etc... to elements in Alpine using the x-bind directive.

Here is an example of a dynamically bound class attribute:

<button
x-data="{ red: false }"
x-bind:class="red ? 'bg-red' : ''"
@click="red = ! red"
>
Toggle Red
</button>

As a shortcut, you can leave out the x-bind and use the shorthand : syntax directly:

<button ... :class="red ? 'bg-red' : ''>"

Toggling classes on and off based on data inside Alpine is a common need. Here's an example of toggling a class using Alpine's class binding object syntax: (Note: this syntax is only available for class attributes)

<div x-data="{ open: true }">
<span :class="{ 'hidden': ! open }">...</span>
</div>

Now the hidden class will be added to the element if open is false, and removed if open is true.

Looping elements

Alpine allows for iterating parts of your template based on JavaScript data using the x-for directive. Here is a simple example:

<div x-data="{ statuses: ['open', 'closed', 'archived'] }">
<template x-for="status in statuses">
<div x-text="status"></div>
</template>
</div>

Similar to x-if, x-for must be applied to a <template> tag. Internally, Alpine will append the contents of <template> tag for every iteration in the loop.

As you can see the new status variable is available in the scope of the iterated templates.

→ Read more about x-for

Inner HTML

Alpine makes it easy to control the HTML content of an element with the x-html directive.

<div x-data="{ title: '<h1>Start Here</h1>' }">
<div x-html="title"></div>
</div>

Now, Alpine will set the text content of the <div> with the element <h1>Start Here</h1>. When title changes, so will the contents of <h1>.

⚠️ Only use on trusted content and never on user-provided content. ⚠️ Dynamically rendering HTML from third parties can easily lead to XSS vulnerabilities.

→ Read more about x-html

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